For utilitarianism and Hegelianism, and their combination in various forms of liberal thought, the… This article discusses the political foundations and history of liberalism from the 17th century to the present. For coverage of classical and contemporary philosophical liberalism, see political philosophy. General characteristics Liberalism is derived from two related features of Western culture. Throughout much of history, the individual has been submerged in and subordinate to his clantribeethnic groupor kingdom.
Classical liberals believe that individuals are "egoistic, coldly calculating, essentially inert and atomistic"  and that society is no more than the sum of its individual members. These beliefs were complemented by a belief that laborers could be best motivated by financial incentive.
This belief led to the passage of the Poor Law Amendment Actwhich limited the provision of social assistance, based on the idea that markets are the mechanism that most efficiently leads to wealth. Adopting Thomas Robert Malthus 's population theory, they saw poor urban conditions as inevitable, they believed population growth would outstrip food production and they regarded that consequence desirable because starvation would help limit population growth.
They opposed any income or wealth redistribution, which they believed would be dissipated by the lowest orders. They were critical of what would come to be the idea of the welfare state as interfering in a free market.
In a free market, both labor and capital would receive the greatest possible reward while production would be organized efficiently to meet consumer demand.
A government to protect individual rights and to provide services that cannot be provided in a free market. A common national defense to provide protection against foreign invaders. Building and maintaining public institutions.
Public works that included a stable currency, standard weights and measures and building and upkeep of roads, canals, harbors, railways, communications and postal services. For society to guarantee positive rights, it requires taxation over and above the minimum needed to enforce negative rights.
In its most extreme form, neo-classical liberalism advocated Social Darwinism. Hayek saw the British philosophers Bernard MandevilleDavid HumeAdam SmithAdam FergusonJosiah Tucker and William Paley as representative of a tradition that articulated beliefs in empiricismthe common law and in traditions and institutions which had spontaneously evolved but were imperfectly understood.
This tradition believed in rationalism and sometimes showed hostility to tradition and religion. Hayek conceded that the national labels did not exactly correspond to those belonging to each tradition: Guido De Ruggiero also identified differences between "Montesquieu and Rousseau, the English and the democratic types of liberalism"  and argued that there was a "profound contrast between the two Liberal systems".
This liberalism had "insensibly adapted ancient institutions to modern needs" and "instinctively recoiled from all abstract proclamations of principles and rights". Lieber asserted that "independence in the highest degree, compatible with safety and broad national guarantees of liberty, is the great aim of Anglican liberty, and self-reliance is the chief source from which it draws its strength".
Whiggery had become a dominant ideology following the Glorious Revolution of and was associated with the defence of the British Parliament, upholding the rule of law and defending landed property.
The origins of rights were seen as being in an ancient constitutionwhich had existed from time immemorial. These rights, which some Whigs considered to include freedom of the press and freedom of speech, were justified by custom rather than by natural rights.
They believed that the power of the executive had to be constrained. While they supported limited suffrage, they saw voting as a privilege rather than as a right. However, there was no consistency in Whig ideology and diverse writers including John LockeDavid HumeAdam Smith and Edmund Burke were all influential among Whigs, although none of them was universally accepted.
Richard Price and Joseph Priestley adapted the language of Locke to the ideology of radicalism. Classical liberals were committed to individualism, liberty and equal rights. They believed that required a free economy with minimal government interference.
Writers such as John Bright and Richard Cobden opposed both aristocratic privilege and property, which they saw as an impediment to the development of a class of yeoman farmers.
Some elements of Whiggery opposed this new thinking and were uncomfortable with the commercial nature of classical liberalism. These elements became associated with conservatism. The Anti-Corn Law League brought together a coalition of liberal and radical groups in support of free trade under the leadership of Richard Cobden and John Brightwho opposed militarism and public expenditure.
Their policies of low public expenditure and low taxation were adopted by William Ewart Gladstone when he became Chancellor of the Exchequer and later Prime Minister. Classical liberalism was often associated with religious dissent and nonconformism. From around tolaissez-faire advocates of the Manchester School and writers in The Economist were confident that their early victories would lead to a period of expanding economic and personal liberty and world peace, but would face reversals as government intervention and activity continued to expand from the s.
Jeremy Bentham and James Millalthough advocates of laissez-faire, non-intervention in foreign affairs and individual liberty, believed that social institutions could be rationally redesigned through the principles of utilitarianism.
The Conservative Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli rejected classical liberalism altogether and advocated Tory democracy. By the s, Herbert Spencer and other classical liberals concluded that historical development was turning against them.Liberalism and Conservatism Liberalism and conservatism have been political ideas and thoughts from the very birth of our democracy.
Their views and points of the government's role in a democratic society have changed over the years, but the basic ideas and principles have remained the same.
A liberal democracy is a form of representative democracy with free and fair form of elections procedure and competitive political kaja-net.com most interesting feature of liberal democracy is that all adult citizens is given the right to vote regardless of race, gender or property ownership.
Aurelius Moner is a Catholic monk who was has left the "nice" philosophy of Liberalism behind, having come to understand that the judgment, authority and strength of the Patriarchy is necessary to save civilization from "nice" people.
Nov 20, · It is a truism that America has become a more diverse country. It is also a beautiful thing to watch. Visitors from other countries, particularly those having trouble incorporating different.
To begin with, the tension or decoupling between democracy and liberalism is an old question in political thought, from Benjamin Constant to Isaiah Berlin. The East is revisiting it in a new context, that of globalization, which is also forcing Europeans to rethink the questions obscured in by the linkage between political and economic.
Democracy's Discontent: America in Search of a Public Philosophy [Michael J. Sandel] on kaja-net.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The defect, Sandel maintains, lies in the impoverished vision of citizenship and community shared by Democrats and Republicans alike.
American politics has lost its civic voice.