View an Adobe PDF version of this sample plan. Financial Plan go to: The business will not have to wait long for clients to learn about it since the stylists will already have an existing client base.
To maintain unit sales, General Motors head Alfred P. Sloan preferred the term "dynamic obsolescence". The smaller players could not maintain the pace and expense of yearly re-styling.
Henry Ford did not like the constant stream of model-year changes because he clung to an engineer's notions of simplicity, economies of scale, and design integrity.
GM surpassed Ford's sales in and became the dominant company in the industry thereafter. The frequent design changes also made it necessary to use a body-on-frame rather than the lighter, but less easy to modify, unibody design used by most European automakers.
Brooks Stevens[ edit ] However, the phrase was first popularized in by Brooks Stevensan American industrial designer. Stevens was due to give break even point business plan talk at an advertising conference in Minneapolis in Without giving it much thought, he used the term as the title of his talk.
From that point on, "planned obsolescence" became Stevens' catchphrase. By his definition, planned obsolescence was "Instilling in the buyer the desire to own something a little newer, a little better, a little sooner than is necessary. By the late s, planned obsolescence had become a commonly used term for products designed to break easily or to quickly go out of style.
In fact, the concept was so widely recognized that in Volkswagen mocked it in an advertising campaign. While acknowledging the widespread use of planned obsolescence among automobile manufacturers, Volkswagen pitched itself as an alternative. Packard divided planned obsolescence into two sub categories: Packard quoted industrial designer George Nelsonwho wrote: When no contribution is made or can be made, the only process available for giving the illusion of change is 'styling!
Thus, it must be decided early in the design of a complex product how long it is designed to last so that each component can be made to those specifications. Since all matter is subject to entropyit is impossible for any designed object to retain its full function forever; all products will ultimately break down, no matter what steps are taken.
While it is known that products are optimized to match their required lifespan, such designs are often chosen for cost or weight saving reasons. Limited lifespan is only a sign of planned obsolescence if the lifespan of the product is made artificially short by design.
The strategy of contrived durability is generally not prohibited by law, and manufacturers are free to set the durability level of their products. Using soft metal in screws and cheap plastic instead of metal in stress-bearing components will increase the speed at which a product will become inoperable through normal usage and make it prone to breakage from even minor forms of abnormal usage.
For example, small, brittle plastic gears in toys are extremely prone to damage if the toy is played with roughly, which can easily destroy key functions of the toy and force the purchase of a replacement. The short life expectancy of smartphones and other handheld electronics is a result of constant usage, fragile batteries, and the ability to easily damage them.
Critics have argued that Apple's use of pentalobe screws in their newer devices is an attempt to prevent the consumer from repairing the device themselves. The ultimate examples of such design are single-use versions of traditionally durable goodssuch as disposable cameraswhere the customer must purchase an entire new product after using them a single time.
Such products are often designed to be impossible to service; for example, a cheap "throwaway" digital watch may have a casing which is simply sealed in the factory, with no designed ability for the user to access the interior without destroying the watch entirely.
Other products may also contain design features meant to frustrate repairs, such as Apple's " tamper-resistant " pentalobe screws that cannot easily be removed with common consumer tools.
The cost of this repair may exceed the residual value of the appliance, forcing it to be scrapped. InToshiba was criticized for issuing cease-and-desist letters to the owner of a website that hosted its copyrighted repair manuals, to the detriment of the independent and home repair market.
While such a design can help make the device thinner, it can also make it difficult to replace the battery without sending the entire device away for repairs or purchasing a replacement.
Many products are primarily desirable for aesthetic rather than functional reasons. An obvious example of such a product is clothing.
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Such products experience a cycle of desirability referred to as a "fashion cycle". By continually introducing new aesthetics, and retargeting or discontinuing older designs, a manufacturer can "ride the fashion cycle", allowing for constant sales despite the original products remaining fully functional.
Sneakers are popular fashion industry where this is prevalent - Nike 's Air Max line of running shoes is a prime example where a single model of shoe is often produced for years, but the color and material combination "colorway" is changed every few months, or different colorways are offered in different markets.
This has the upshot of ensuring constant demand for the product, even though it remains fundamentally the same. To a more limited extent this is also true of some consumer electronic products, where manufacturers will release slightly updated products at regular intervals and emphasize their value as status symbols.
Systemic obsolescence[ edit ] Planned systemic obsolescence is the deliberate attempt to make a product obsolete by altering the system in which it is used in such a way as to make its continued use difficult.A break-even analysis is a key part of any good business plan. It can also be helpful even before you decide to write a business plan, when you're trying to figure out if an idea is worth pursuing.
The break even analysis calculator is designed to demonstrate how many units of your product must be sold to make a profit. Hit "View Report" to see a detailed . May 28, · The break-even analysis lets you determine what you need to sell, monthly or annually, to cover your costs of doing business—your break-even point.3/5(75).
A break-even analysis is the sales level that is required for your business to operate without incurring a financial loss.
It is important to determine this point, as the viability of your business is reliant on staying above this number. But you haven't incurred any losses either. This calculation is paramount for any business owner because the breakeven point is the lower limit of profit when determining margins.
Defining Costs. This calculation will clearly show you how many units of a product you must sell in order to break even. Business Plan Essentials: Question. Create an investment-worthy business plan with our template builder. Download into Word or PDF for free. We ask the questions, you fill in the answers.