A page from the "Calendars" exhibit
Original citation Over the past century Western industrialized nations have attempted to reorganize the rest of the planet to live by their understanding of the natural and social world. In many ways they have been very successful in this endeavor. Over the period a world economic system has emerged with which communities must increasingly interact.
Successful interaction seems to depend on internal reorganization of the political, economic and social lives of people, and so communities find themselves compelled, by their Continuity and change over time silk road trade to compete in the world system, to 'develop'.
Since governments everywhere are under increasing pressure to establish and maintain the legislative, political and economic institutions that are necessary to ensure formal economic development, we need to understand the key principles which underpin such developments.
We also need to be aware of the ways in which such principles conflict with the equally 'natural' understandings of people in non-Western communities. Any examination of economic organisation and action needs to be based on a prior understanding of the basic cultural presumptions underpinning them.
In a way which is common to people in all societies, people in Western communities, when considering the fundamental rights and responsibilities of community members towards one another, speak in ideological terms.
While each ideological frame spells out a particular version of 'reality', they all presume certain fundamental understandings about the nature of individuals, communities, the environment, and the metaphysical realm, and about the forms of relationship found in and between them.
I will refer to the consciously held 'ideal realities' which are derived from them and promoted by groups within a society as secondary ideologies see Ideology and Reality for further discussion. To communities which do not share Western primary ideological presumptions, the confrontations among competing Western secondary ideologies are less than rational.
Because their own forms of secondary ideology are based on their own primary ideological presumptions about life, which are likely to be very different from the basic presumptions contained within Western primary ideology, it is very difficult for them to enter into a dialogue with Western people.
Rather, as has happened during the last half century, people become opposed on the basis of subconsciously held basic presumptions about life, rather than on the basis of variant secondary ideologies. So, we speak of the confrontation between 'Islam and the West', rather than about a confrontation between Shiites and capitalists.
What we have is a confrontation between primary rather than secondary ideologies. Through this century, as non-Western communities become increasingly self-assertive, we are likely to find that the confrontations which occur will not be between people holding competing versions of Western secondary ideology - those are likely to oppose each other at the ballot box and in other ways within Western countries - but between variant sets of basic presumptions about the meaning, purpose and organisation of life.
These presumptions, being reflections of the basic cognitive frames of communities, will be poorly expressed, and those who attempt dialogue based upon such confrontations will find the explanations and basic positions of their adversaries rationally and logically unconvincing.
Before we can grapple with the confrontations which are already occurring and will repeatedly re-occur throughout this century, we need to comprehend the basic presumptions underpinning Western capitalist understandings of life.
In this discussion we will attempt to do this through exploring the historical experiences which shaped and moulded Western European communities over the past thousand years as they moved from feudalism to capitalism. How have some of the most basic presumptions which underpin Western understandings of life been shaped by history, becoming seen as features of the real world, the unfocused backdrop to secondary ideological disputes?
The descriptions which follow are complementary to sketches drawn elsewhere Ideology and RealitySubsistence and StatusThe Nature of Work.
Here I will examine: In the examination of these issues I am going to look at some of the historical experiences of Western Europeans which have, over more than eight hundred years, produced the consumer culture of today.
To understand the present we have to know the experiences of the past which shaped and moulded Western European thinking and action and produced the primary ideological presumptions which underpin interaction, meaning and organisation in Western communities.
People and recognised 'environments' Fundamental to understanding Western primary ideological presumptions is an understanding of the ways in which people conceive of and interact with their environments. In order to grapple with the ways in which Western Europeans conceive of themselves in relation to their environments, we need to understand several important fundamental assumptions from which they operate.
First, all human beings are individuals who independently interact with the various environments within which they live, and develop their own unique personas through that interaction.
Second, these independent individuals are autonomous fashioners of their environments, which are passive, being moulded by, and reflecting, human activity.
Third, individuals interact with a number of quite distinct environments. There is the physical or material environment, bound by natural laws. For Western people, the 'natural world' can be controlled and directed by mastering sets of laws which relate to its various aspects - those of physics, chemistry, geology, botany, and so on.
There is the social environment bound by social laws, again controlled and directed through understanding and applying sets of laws - the economic, political and social. And there is, for many Western people, approximately eighty per cent of the population in most Western national censuses, a spiritual, or religious, or metaphysical environment bound by its own quite distinctive sets of laws.
Each set of laws is self-contained and, until very recently, it was assumed and still is by most Western people that the rules for interaction with, and in, each environment can be spelt out, providing people with all the necessary information for interacting in the best possible ways with each of those environments.
This belief has led Western people to assume that through education and research, through mastering the principles and rule requirements for interaction with each environment, the best possible forms of behavior, attitude, organization and interaction for individuals and groups can be determined.
Once those best possibilities have been outlined, and people commit themselves to living in accord with those possibilities, both individuals and communities become 'developed'.
That is, once Western researchers have determined the fundamental laws for interaction with each recognised environment, they are able to prescribe the best forms of activity and organization for any community.
They are therefore able to evaluate the performance of any community in terms of their prescriptions. The sets of prescriptions reflect, of course, the secondary ideologies of Western communities.
The presumption of the existence of a range of separate environments with which people interact is, however, a primary ideological presumption, one which is basic to the ways in which Western people think and organize their lives, no matter what secondary ideology they might subscribe to.
So, the keys to development 3 are research to ascertain the principles underlying human interaction with each Western environment, together with the ways in which the environments might be reorganized for individual and community advantage; establishment of the bureaucratic frameworks through which the activities of individuals can be focused and channeled to the requirements of those prescriptions 4 and education of people to live by those principles, so ensuring physical, social, political, economic and spiritual well-being.
Rathbone Gregg, in the s, put it very clearly: The lot of manBoring trade show booths don’t attract visitors and they certainly don’t help sales.
But coming up with new and exciting ideas is costly and time-consuming. The economic benefits of the modern silk road: The China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). Oriental Rugs Today: Chapter 4 Part 4.
Of all the rug-weaving countries in the world, Turkey may be the most fun for travelers looking to buy. Rugs and carpets have been made there for centuries, so travelers find rugs of all ages in the Turkish bazaars and a huge assortment of them from thousands of villages.
Over the past century Western industrialized nations have attempted to reorganize the rest of the planet to live by their understanding of the natural and social world.
In many ways they have been very successful in this endeavor. Over the period a world economic system has emerged with which communities must increasingly interact. You may have noticed that the bulletin cover contains a picture and caption that speak of a “Journey to Generosity.”This is our stewardship theme for the year, and there is a relationship between the prayer for laborers and our acts of stewardship.
Trade The trade of spices from asia to Europe stayed constant, While materials bartered slowly changed. Continuity and change in the Silk Road poltical changes.