A lot of them well there will be a lot of them once I get more of them written revolve around issues of health and healthcare, since that's my primary focus, but will attempt to place it in the context of a philosophy and model of existence that breaks out of the materialism in all senses of the biomedical model, encompassing recent developments in many different areas of enquiry as well as older, traditional world views, cosmologies and philosophies. Time for a Change of Heart? It doesn't need to go beyond that to make its point — which is that the underlying proximal cause of cardiovascular disease is staring us in the face.
Russian novelist, short story and novella writer, essayist, dramatist, and critic. Tolstoy is regarded as one of the greatest novelists in the history of world literature.
His Voina i mir War and Peace and Anna Karenina are almost universally acknowledged as all-encompassing documents of human existence and supreme examples of the realistic novel. Tolstoy is also considered a major religious and philosophic Critical essays tolstoy, germs of which can be seen in his earlier fiction, but which ultimately came to fruition after the spiritual crisis he underwent beginning with deep depression in Biographical Information Tolstoy was born in to a wealthy family who resided just outside of Moscow.
In he entered Kazan University, but failed to earn a degree. He returned to the family estate, Yasnaya Polyana, in to manage the affairs there. Dissatisfied, Tolstoy joined the army inseeing active service in the Caucasus and in the siege of Sevastopol during the Crimean War, which he later wrote about in his Sevastopolskiye rasskazy Sevastopol Sketches.
While in the army, Tolstoy began to write and publish fiction, which met with much success. He left the army in and traveled through Europe before returning to Yasnaya Polyana, where he lived for the rest of his life. At this point, he became interested in social reform, focusing his efforts on educational and philanthropic work with the peasants around his estate.
Beginning aroundTolstoy was plagued by depression and an obsession with death that lasted until his final spiritual crisis-a "conversion" to the orthodoxy of his youth-in Concentrating for the next several years on intensive study of theology and the Christian scriptures, Tolstoy developed his own interpretation of Christianity based on an ethical foundation of universal love and brotherhood, which eventually led to his renunciation of the aristocratic lifestyle.
He turned away from writing the kind of novels that had won him worldwide fame and concentrated instead on writing philosophical and religious works, many designed to educate the masses.
Beset by family problems, and overwhelmed by the responsibility of upholding his teachings in the face of massive social upheaval, Tolstoy fled from his home indying in a railway station in Astapovo. Major Works In Ispoved A ConfessionTolstoy outlined the spiritual upheaval that caused him to question the basis of his existence.
The piece is considered among the great literary works of personal conversion that include St. At this point in his career, Tolstoy was concerned with producing two types of fiction: The folktales, such as "Brazhe iepko, a bozhe krepko" "Evil Allures but Good Endures"were designed as examples of "universal art" and have often been praised for delivering their didactic point in an artful manner.
During his later period Tolstoy also produced a number of dramatic works in an attempt to express his post-conversion ideas in a genre outside fiction.
The chief work among these plays is Vlast tmy The Power of Darkness. The somber action of the drama-including adultery, murder, and religious torment-culminates in the redeeming vision of Christian faith that was a spiritual focus of the older Tolstoy. The artistic repercussions of his conversion are spelled out in Chto takoe iskusstvo What Is Art?
The major concern of this essay is to distinguish bogus art, which he called an elitist celebration of aesthetics, from universal art, which successfully "infects" its recipient with the highest sentiment an artist can transmit-that of religious feeling.
During this period Tolstoy also wrote his many moral and theological tracts, for which he was eventually excommunicated. His pamphleteering on social, political, and economic subjects also resulted in the censorship of his work by the government.
Critical Reception As a religious and ethical thinker Tolstoy has been criticized for the extremism, and sometimes the absurdity, of his ideas. Tolstoy himself was acutely aware of the contradiction between his aristocratic upbringing and his later renunciation of elitism, and some critics have speculated that this is the reason for his doctrine of often excessive asceticism.
Although Tolstoy ultimately believed that art should serve a religious and ethical code, he himself serves primarily as a model of the consummate artist, and his greatest works are exemplary of the nature and traditions of modern literature.This is an essay drafted in response to a question in a Philosophy of Science Course at the local university.
The reading in the list is the relevant section of Nelson Goodman’s book Fact, Fiction and Forecast in the s. The hero of my tale, whom I love with all the power of my soul, whom I have tried to portray in all his beauty, who has been, is, and will be beautiful, is Truth.
In War and Peace common people are history creators: million masses and not heroes and commanders create history, move society forward, and create all valuable in material and spiritual life.
And this idea, national idea, Tolstoy proves on the example of . Besides nonviolent resistance, the two men shared a common belief in the merits of vegetarianism, the subject of several of Tolstoy's essays. Tolstoy also became a major supporter of the Esperanto movement.
The bibliography of George Orwell includes journalism, essays, novels and non-fiction books written by the British writer Eric Blair (–50), either under his own name or, more usually, under his pen name George kaja-net.com was a prolific writer on topics related to contemporary English society and literary criticism, whom the British newsweekly The Economist in declared "perhaps.
Critical Essays on Tolstoy (Critical Essays on World Literature) Hardcover – April 1, by.