A recent post here about thawing permafrost releasing climate-warming carbon dioxide into the atmosphere was no exception. As CO2 has had no noticeable effect on climate in million years, until 20 years ago, when carbon tax was invented, any alleged climatic effects can be ignored. I ordinarily ignore comments like the one I quote above.
For example, rock layers show the sequence of geological events, and the presence and amount of radioactive elements in rocks make it possible to determine their ages.
Analyses of rock formations and the fossil record are used to establish relative ages. In an undisturbed column of rock, the youngest rocks are at the top, and the oldest are at the bottom. Rock layers have sometimes been rearranged by tectonic forces; rearrangements can be seen or inferred, such as from inverted sequences of fossil types.
The rock record reveals that events on Earth can be catastrophic, occurring over hours to years, or gradual, occurring over thousands to millions of years.
Records of fossils and other rocks also show past periods of massive extinctions and extensive volcanic activity. Although active geological processes, such as plate tectonics link to ESS2. B and erosion, have destroyed or altered most of the very early rock record on Earth, some other objects in the solar system, such as asteroids and meteorites, have changed little over billions of years.
Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: A Framework for K Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. The National Academies Press. Major historical events include the formation of mountain chains and ocean basins, volcanic activity, the evolution and extinction of living organisms, periods of massive glaciation, and development of watersheds and rivers.
Because many individual plant and animal species existed during known time periods e. C By the end of grade 2. Some events on Earth occur in cycles, like day and night, and others have a beginning and an end, like a volcanic eruption.
Some events, like an earthquake, happen very quickly; others, such as the formation of the Grand Canyon, occur very slowly, over a time period much longer than one can observe. By the end of grade 5.
Earth has changed over time. Understanding how landforms develop, are weathered broken down into smaller piecesand erode get transported elsewhere can help infer the history of the current landscape.
Local, regional, and global patterns of rock formations reveal changes over time due to Earth forces, such as earthquakes. The presence and location of certain fossil types indicate the order in which rock layers were formed. By the end of grade 8.
Major historical events include the formation of mountain chains and ocean basins, the evolution and extinction of particular living organisms, volcanic eruptions, periods of massive glaciation, and development of watersheds and rivers through glaciation and water erosion.
Analyses of rock strata and the fossil record provide only relative dates, not an absolute scale. By the end of grade Radioactive decay lifetimes and isotopic content in rocks provide a way of dating rock formations and thereby fixing the scale of geological time.
Continental rocks, which can be older than 4 billion years, are generally much older than rocks on the ocean floor, which are less than million years old.
Tectonic processes continually generate new ocean seafloor at ridges and destroy old seafloor at trenches.
B and erosion, have destroyed or altered most of the very early rock record on Earth, other objects in the solar system, such as lunar rocks, asteroids, and meteorites, have changed little over billions of years. Weather and climate are shaped by complex interactions involving sunlight, the ocean, the atmosphere, clouds, ice, land, and life forms.
Earth is a complex system of interacting subsystems: The geosphere includes a hot and mostly metallic inner core; a mantle of hot, soft, solid rock; and a crust of rock, soil, and sediments.back to top Index:Minerals & Rocks, Weather, Earth In Space (local astronomy), Climate & Insolation, Astronomy, Rivers, Glaciers, Wind & Deserts, Coastal Processes.
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Zoroastrianism is the Persian monotheistic fideist religion founded by Zarathustra (cc BCE) and which teaches that good must be chosen over evil in order to achieve salvation.
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Plastic pollution and marine debris, South Sentinel Island, Bay of Bengal.