Economics Abstract This chapter reviews the growing body of literature on vulnerability.
Abstract Introduction Health disparities exist between rural and urban residents; in particular, rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases and obesity. Evidence supports the effectiveness of policy and environmental strategies to prevent obesity and promote health equity.
Inthe Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended 24 policy and environmental strategies for use by local communities: This review was conducted to synthesize evidence on the implementation, relevance, and effectiveness of physical activity—related policy and environmental strategies for obesity prevention in rural communities.
Each article was extracted independently by 2 researchers. Results Of 2, articles, 30 articles representing 26 distinct studies met inclusion criteria. Only 14 studies measured or reported physical activity outcomes 10 studies solely used self-report ; 10 reported positive changes.
Conclusion Seven of the 12 COCOMO physical activity—related strategies were successfully implemented in 2 or more studies, suggesting that these 7 strategies are relevant in rural communities and the other 5 might be less applicable in rural communities.
Top Introduction Rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases and obesity than urban residents 1—5. Rural residents may have as much as 6.
Physical inactivity is associated with higher rates of chronic diseases and obesity 7,8and some research suggests that rural residents are less physically active than urban residents 9— Rural residents also have higher rates of poverty, fewer community resources, less access to preventive services and health care, greater geographic dispersion, and more transportation challenges eg, lack of public transit, greater travel distance than urban residents 12— Although evidence supports the effectiveness of policy and environmental strategies to prevent obesity and promote health equity, much of this evidence is derived from nonrural settings 13,19, Inthe Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC recommended 24 strategies for local communities to use in planning and monitoring obesity-related policy and environmental changes using preexisting data sources: Twelve strategies focus on physical activity PA Table 1: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review of the implementation, relevance, and effectiveness of physical activity—related policy and environmental strategies for obesity prevention in rural communities, including both COCOMO and non-COCOMO approaches.
A secondary aim was to synthesize the evidence on the implementation success of the 12 physical activity—related COCOMO strategies in rural communities.
Methods Data sources A literature search was conducted in the following databases: The search included articles published in English from through May and focused on findings from PA—related policy or environmental interventions.
Each search used the following terms: The following states were designated as predominantly rural: Relevant references cited in each identified study were also included in the secondary literature search. Methods mirrored a companion literature review describing application of nutrition-related COCOMO strategies in rural communities Study selection At least 2 researchers reviewed titles, abstracts, and complete texts of articles for inclusion.
Studies were included that reported findings from empirical formative, process, or outcome research with strategies aimed at changing policy or environments to support PA in rural US or Canada communities.
Publications were excluded if 1 both rural and urban communities were included and rural-specific findings were not reported, 2 the primary focus was on instrument development or individual-level behavioral change, or 3 studies were descriptive or did not describe an intervention.
Data extraction The article extraction team consisted of 18 trained researchers. Data for each article were extracted independently by 2 trained researchers. We used a customized Qualtrics Qualtrics LLC online survey as a tool to extract information about study setting, geographic location, sample characteristics, rural definition, design, methods, results, and bias-risk assessment 25— After independent extraction, results were compared and discrepancies were resolved by consensus.
The Cochrane tool assesses risk of bias across 6 categories: GRADE guidelines assess risk of bias across 4 categories: Risk of bias was rated as low score of 1high score of 0or unclear score of 0 for each Cochrane or GRADE category based on study type 25 ; overall summary scores for bias risk were calculated and categorized as low, medium, or high RCTs: Extraction data entered into Qualtrics were downloaded into Excel for synthesis.
We organized data into the following categories: Top Results Searches returned 9, articles, of which 2, were identified as relevant for further screening based on title and abstract.
Duplicates were removed, leaving records for full-text screening; of these did not meet inclusion criteria. The remaining 45 articles represented 41 distinct studies and were assigned for data extraction; 15 articles were excluded during extraction for various reasons Figure.
Thus, 30 articles representing 26 distinct studies were included in the final synthesis.
Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis PRISMA flow diagram for study inclusion in a systematic review of physical activity—related policy and environmental strategies for obesity prevention in rural communities.
Only 3 studies were RCTs. Bias-risk assessments showed that 19 studies had high risk of bias, 4 studies had medium risk, and 3 studies had low risk Table 3.
Of the 3 RCTs, one had medium risk and 2 had high risk of bias Table 3.Provides a complete review of the Vedas and Vedic literature. ICTs and POVERTY: A LITERATURE REVIEW section is followed by an assessment of literature on ICTs and poverty reduction from the perspective of development in Section 5.
The focus of Section 6 is ICTs and a selection of thematic areas that include agriculture, culture, education, health and. Research Proposal and Lit Review. I. The Problem and Setting. Review of Related Literature. Introduction. The reason that these programs, and their accurate measurements of effectiveness, are so important is because they are the future of rehabilitation.
In order for rehabilitation to be achieved within the juvenile justice system. Resource rents distribution, income inequality and poverty in Iran. In addition to the poverty measurements, we investigate the effects of the oil and gas rents direct distribution policy on the patterns of income distribution.
(for a review of related literature on oil-political institutions with a focus on the case of Iran see. Abstract. Poverty remains a primary public policy issue, and a large literature has discussed the limitations of an income poverty measure. Using income as an indicator of poverty is a helpful simplification designed to capture ability to meet consumption needs.
ICTs and POVERTY: A LITERATURE REVIEW section is followed by an assessment of literature on ICTs and poverty reduction from the perspective of development in Section 5.
The focus of Section 6 is ICTs and a selection of thematic areas that include agriculture, culture, education, health and.