Www scribd com school work essays theses

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Www scribd com school work essays theses

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels believed that hunter-gatherer societies and some primitive agricultural societies were communal, and called this primitive communism. Engels wrote about this at length in the book The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the Statewhich was based on the unpublished notes of Marx on the work of Lewis Henry Morgan.

Marx had viewed the process in a similar light, referring to it as part of the process of "primitive accumulation" whereby enough initial capital is amassed to begin capitalist production.

The dislocation that Polyani and others describe, triggered natural counter-movements in efforts to re-embed the economy in society. These counter-movements, that included, for example, the Luddite rebellions, are the incipient socialist movements.

Over time such movements gave birth to or acquired an array of intellectual defenders who attempted to develop their ideas in theory.

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As Polanyi noted, these counter-movements were mostly reactive and therefore not full-fledged socialist movements. Later, a full socialist program developed, arguing for systemic transformation.

Its theorists believed that even if markets and private property could be tamed so as Www scribd com school work essays theses to be excessively "exploitative", or crises could be effectively mitigated, capitalist social relations would remain significantly unjust and anti-democratic, suppressing universal human needs for fulfilling, empowering and creative work, diversity and solidarity.

Within this context socialism has undergone four periods: As socialism developed, so did the socialist system of economics. Utopian socialism The first theories which came to hold the term "socialism" began to be formulated in the late 18th century, and were termed "socialism" early in the 19th century.

The central beliefs of the socialism of this period rested on the exploitation of those who labored by those who owned capital or rented land and housing. The abject misery, poverty and disease to which laboring classes seemed destined was the inspiration for a series of schools of thought which argued that life under a class of masters, or "capitalists" as they were then becoming to be called, would consist of working classes being driven down to subsistence wages.

Www scribd com school work essays theses

See Iron law of wages. Socialist ideas found expression in utopian movements, which often formed agricultural communes aimed at being self-sufficient on the land. These included many religious movements, such as the Christian socialism of the Shakers in America and the Hutterites. The Zionist kibbutzim and communes of the counterculture are also manifestations of utopian socialist ideas.

Utopian socialism had little to offer in terms of a systematic theory of economic phenomena[ citation needed ]. In theory, economic problems were dissolved by a utopian society which had transcended material scarcity.

In practice, small communities with a common spirit could sometimes resolve allocation problems. Socialism and classical political economy[ edit ] The first organized theories of socialist economics were significantly impacted by classical economic theory, including elements in Adam SmithRobert Malthus and David Ricardo.

In Smith there is a conception of a common good not provided by the market, a class analysisa concern for the dehumanizing aspects of the factory system, and the concept of rent as being unproductive. Ricardo argued that the renting class was parasitic. This, and the possibility of a " general glut ", an over accumulation of capital to produce goods for sale rather than for use, became the foundation of a rising critique of the concept that free markets with competition would be sufficient to prevent disastrous downturns in the economy, and whether the need for expansion would inevitably lead to war.

Socialist political economy before Marx[ edit ] Charles Fourierinfluential early French socialist thinker A key early socialist theorist of political economy was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon. He was the most well-known of nineteenth century mutualist theorists and the first thinker to refer to himself as an anarchist.

Count Henri de Saint-Simon was the first individual to coin the term "socialism". The Ricardian socialistssuch as Thomas Hodgskin and Charles Hall, were based on the work of David Ricardo and reasoned that the equilibrium value of commodities approximated producer prices when those commodities were in elastic supply, and that these producer prices corresponded to the embodied labor.

The Ricardian socialists viewed profit, interest and rent as deductions from this exchange-value. He radically modified classical political economic theories.

Marx transformed the labor theory of valuewhich had been worked upon by Adam Smith and David Ricardointo his " law of value ", and used it for the purpose of revealing how commodity fetishism obscures the reality of capitalist society.

His approach, which Friedrich Engels would call " scientific socialism ", would stand as the branching point in economic theory. In one direction went those who rejected the capitalist system as fundamentally anti-social, arguing that it could never be harnessed to effectively realize the fullest development of human potentialities wherein "the free development of each is the condition for the free development of all.

The work of philosophy, anthropology, sociology, and economics includes the following topics: The Law of Value: A commodity has two essential qualities firstly, they are useful, they satisfy some human want, "the nature of such wants, whether, for instance, they spring from the stomach or from fancy, makes no difference" [19] and secondly they are sold on a market or exchanged.

Critically the exchange value of a commodity "is independent of the amount of labour required to appropriate its useful qualities". Moreover, capitalist property relations aggravated the artificial separation between city and country, which is a key factor in accounting for the metabolic rift between human beings in capitalism and their natural environment, which is at the root of our current ecological dilemmas.

Marx adapted previous value-theory to show that in capitalism phenomena involved with the price system markets, competition, supply and demand constitute a powerful ideology that obscures the underlying social relations of capitalist society.

The underlying social reality is one of economic exploitation.

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